Thomistic Philosophy
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Thomistic Metaphysics
Being

BEING : THAT WHICH CAN EXIST   Click to Expand ⤵

  1. Real Being (a.k.a. Reality)
    That which exists or can exist outside the mind   ⤵
    1. Actual Being (a.k.a. Actuality or Physical Being)
      That which does exist outside the mind
      Note: Actual Being exists more and is more real than Possible Being (and while possibilities can also be said to exist in reality, the word "real" usually implies "actual" more specifically)
      (e.g. rock, tree, dog, human)
    2. Possible Being (a.k.a. Possibility or Metaphysical Being)
      That which can exist outside the mind (and may or may not actually exist)
      Note: All Actual Beings are also Possible Beings, but Purely Possible Being is that which is only possible and not actual
      (e.g. rock, tree, dog, human, dinosaur, unicorn, personal teleportation technology)

  2. Mental Being (a.k.a. Virtual Being)
    That which exists in the mind   ⤵
    1. Ideal Being
      That which exists in the mind and can also exist in reality
      (e.g. rock, tree, dog, human, dinosaur, unicorn, personal teleportation technology)   ⤵
      1. Subjective Being (a.k.a. Mental Image or Sensory Image or Phantasm)
        That which exists in the mind as an image of a real being (i.e. in the imagination)
        Note: The word "image" here not only refers to visual images but also any data based on other senses as well (and this covers both purely imaginary beings as well as actual beings that are being thought of)
      2. Objective Being (a.k.a. Real Conceptual Being or Understanding)
        That which exists in the mind as a form of a real being (i.e. in the intellect)
        Note: While the human mind always needs some mental image of something to bring to mind a concept, it is possible to merely have a mental image of something without a concept (that is, it is possible to just sense and/or imagine something without having any understanding behind it)

    2. Purely Mental Being (a.k.a. Purely Conceptual Being or Being of Reason or Logical Being)
      That which exists in the mind but cannot exist in reality   ⤵
      1. Negative Being (a.k.a. Negation)
        That which represents the absence of a being
        (e.g. blindness, an absence of chairs, nothingness)   ⤵
        1. Privative Being (a.k.a. Privation or Deprivation)
          That which represents the absence of a being in a thing which ought to have such a being according to the thing's nature
          (e.g. the lack of wings on a bird)
        2. Purely Negative Being (a.k.a. Pure Negation)
          That which represents the absence of a being in a thing which does not require such a being according to the thing's nature
          (e.g. the lacks of wings on a pig)

      2. Purely Mental Relation (a.k.a. Purely Conceptual Relation or Relation of Reason or Logical Relation)
        That which represents a relation between concepts
        (e.g. the conventional connection between words and their meanings)
      3. Self-Contradictory Being (a.k.a. Paradoxical Quiddity or Non-Thing)
        That which refers to two concepts connected by a purely mental relation which cannot be unified into a single concept, due to the logical incompatibility of the two concepts (such a being is said to have no foundation in reality)
        (e.g. square circle)